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Chapter 1 - Beach Volleyball Facilities and Equipment

  Rule 1 - The Beach Volleyball Playing Area
  Rule 2 - Beach Volleyball Net and Supports
  Rule 3 - The Ball
  Rule 4 - The Game Clock

Chapter 2 - Participants and Their Coach or Trainer

  Rule 5 - The Players and Their Responsibilities
  Rule 6 - The Team
  Rule 7 - The Coach/Trainer

Chapter 3 - Officials Authority and Responsibility

  Rule 8 - The Tournament Director
  Rule 9 - The Referee
  Rule 10 - The Umpire
  Rule 11 - The Linesmen

Chapter 4 - Structure and Procedures of the Beach Volleyball Game

  Rule 12 - Beach Volleyball Structure
  Rule 13 - Beach Volleyball Procedures
  Rule 14 - Interruptions and Delays

Chapter 5 - Rules of Beach Volleyball Play

  Rule 15 - States of Beach Volleyball Play
  Rule 16 - Beach Volleyball Player Faults
  Rule 17 - The Serve
  Rule 18 - Playing the Ball
  Rule 19 - Play at the Net
  Rule 20 - The Block

Chapter 6 - Misconduct and Sanctions

  Rule 21 - Misconduct
  Rule 22 Sanctions
  The Beach Volleyball Playing Area
  Officials/Staff - Positions on Court
  Glossary of Beach Volleyball Terms


Chapter 1 - Beach Volleyball Facilities and Equipment

  Rule 1 The Beach Volleyball Playing Area
  1.1 - Dimensions
  The playing court is 60' long by 30' wide. An unencumbered area for play of at least 10' should surround the court.
  1.2 - Court Markings
  Court lines shall be easily distinguishable. Two side lines and two end lines define the playing court. The playing court is measured from the outside edge of these lines.
  1.3 - Playing Surface
  The playing surface will consist of sand and be of a level nature with neither a noticeable upslope or downslope. The sand should be of a fine, non-abrasive quality, easily penetrated to a depth of 7". Beyond this depth, the sand can be of a firmer or more packed nature, but not solid or rock-like. The sand should be free of foreign objects including wood, rocks, glass and metal.

  Rule 2 - Beach Volleyball Net and Supports
  2.1 - Net Size and Construction.
  The net shall be 32' in length and 39" in width. The net must be constructed of 4" square mesh. Over the top and full length of the net is sewn a 2" 4" vinyl or canvas border. At the top and bottom of the net, separate cables shall extend through the upper and lower edges of the net as well as through wooden dowels on the ends.
  2.2 - Net Height
  The height of the net shall be 8'.
  2.3 - Antennas
  An antenna is a flexible rod approximately 6 feet long and 1/2 inch in diameter. Two antennas, one on each end of the net are attached at that point where the antenna's indefinite downward extension would be flush with the outside of the court side line.
  2.4 - Permanent Net Supports
  Supports may be of metal or wood. They will be of sufficient size and buried at such depth so as to provide total stability.
  2.5 - Temporary Court Systems
  Supports may be of metal, wood or plastic. The choice of temporary courts should be based first on stability when erect and second on the ease of putting such a system "up" and ready for play.

  Rule 3 - The Ball
  3.1 - Ball Shape
  The ball shall be spherical.
  3.2 Ball Construction
  18 panels of stitched leather or leather-like material which encase a bladder of rubber or rubber-like material.
  3.3 - Ball Size
  The ball shall be not less than 25" or more than 27" in circumference. Air pressure is approximately 5 lbs.
  3.4 - Ball Uniformity
  All balls used in a tournament must be of the same type and bear uniform characteristics with regard to size, weight, pressure, etc. Official AVP sanctioned events must be played with AVP approved balls.

  Rule 4 - The Game Clock
  4.1 - Clock Use
  A game clock will be used in every game. Numerals will be a minimum 6 inches high.
  4.2 - Timing Error
  The official time will be that shown on the game clock. The referee may change the time shown on the game clock based on his conclusion that there was a clock malfunction or obvious operator error.


Chapter 2 - The Participants and Their Coach or Trainer

  Rule 5 - The Players and their Responsibility
  5.1 - Rules of the Game
  It is the responsibility of each player to know and abide by the rules.
  5.2 - Player Behavior
  A. Players must not persistently address officials in regard to their decisions.
  B. Players must not make derogatory remarks about, or to an official, opponents or spectators.
  C. Players must refrain from the use of profanity.
  D. Players must not commit acts with the intention of influencing the referee's decisions.
  E. Players must refrain from intentionally trying to distract an opponent who is playing or about to play the ball (i.e. shouting, clapping, etc.).
  F. Players should not take any action tending to influence the referee judgment concerning ball handling.
  G. Players may not commit any act which, in the opinion of the referee, delays the game unnecessarily.
  H. Players must refrain from kicking or hitting the ball out of the area of play.
  I. Players must not intentionally damage tournament equipment.
  J. Physical assault or intimidation of officials, opponents or spectators by players is prohibited.
  5.3 - Player Clothing
  Players are not limited in the clothing they wear as long as an unnatural advantage is not gained and as long as such clothing cannot be construed as possibly being injurious to another individual.
  5.4 - Request for Clarification
  A player may ask the referee to clarify his call. The referee determines the nature and length of such clarification.
  5.5 - Request for Tournament Director
  A player had the right to request the presence of the tournament director for the express purpose of clarifying a rule. In no case shall such privilege be extended to situations where the referee's judgment is solely in question.

  Rule 6 - The Team
  6.1 - Composition
  There are two players on a team.
  6.2 - Substitution
  No substitution may be made once competition has begun. If one player cannot play for any reason, the team must forfeit.

  Rule 7 - The Coach/Trainer
  7.1 - Location
  A. A coach/trainer must sit at center court and on the same side of the court on which his team is playing. Proper positioning is in the player area when available, outside the banners when there is no player area and at least six feet from the court when there are no court banners.
  B. A coach/trainer is to remain stationary during the match with the following exceptions:
1. Change sides of the court at side changes.
2. Address or attend his player or team during side changes, time-outs, or any other extended interruption in play deemed suitable by the referee.
  C. A coach/trainer must sit at center court and on the same side of the court on which his team is playing. Proper positioning is in the player area when available, outside the banners when there is no player area and at least six feet from the court when there are no court banners.
  7.2 - Authority
  A. A coach/trainer may not personally call a time-out, but he may by word or signal communicate to his players his recommendation that they personally call a time-out.
  B. A coach/trainer may only communicate with his players regarding game strategy or any other subject matter:
1. Before the game begins
2. During time-outs
3. During side changes
4. Any other extended interruption in play deemed suitable by the referee.
  7.3 - Coach/Trainer Behavior
  A. A coach/trainer may not address the Tournament Director, game officials, or opposing players before, during or after a game while on-site with regard to officiating, player conduct, playing conditions, or any other subject matter that impacts the competition. In short, a coach/trainer is not considered a team spokesman by tournament officials and has no right to conduct himself as such.
  B. Coach/Trainer will not use an audible obscenity or make an obscene gesture within the precincts of the tournament site.
  C. Coach/Trainer will not abuse (verbally or physically) tournament officials, opposing players, spectators or other persons within the precincts of the tournament site.


Chapter 3 - Officials Authority and Responsibility

  Rule 8 - The Tournament Director
  8.1 - Authority
  A. The tournament director has absolute authority over players, game officials and spectators, on and off the court at a tournament, where the maintenance of order is concerned, and may impose disciplinary measures as needed.
  B. The tournament director has the authority to make any necessary decisions regarding entries and seeding.
  C. The tournament director has the authority to direct and/or assign all activities in conjunction with the volleyball tournament.
  D. The tournament director may change the format of the tournament if, in his opinion, conditions warrant it (i.e. loser's games played to 11 points because of limited daylight).
  E. The tournament director has the authority to settle any and all disputes.
  F. The tournament director is the sole authority who determines if weather conditions warrant a suspension or cancellation of play.
  G. The tournament director is the final authority in determining if courts are safe and playable.
  8.2 - Responsibility
  A. The tournament director completes the tournament board prior to play.
  B. The tournament director checks all courts prior to play to insure safety and conformity to specifications.
  C. The tournament director will control the progress of the tournament, determining when and where games are to be played.
  D. The tournament director will assign the game officials for all matches.
  E. The tournament director will monitor the performance of game officials.
  F. The tournament director will monitor player behavior.
  G. The tournament director will direct and assign other tournament staff as needed.

  Rule 9 - The Referee
  9.1 - Location
  The referee is located at one end of the net, seated or standing, from which point there will be an unencumbered view of play. Such a position should provide a viewpoint 18" 24" above the net.
  9.2 - Authority
  A. The referee has total authority on the court from the beginning of warm-ups to the completion of the match.
  B. The referee's authority extends over the players and other officials on the court.
  C. Any judgment decisions rendered by the referee are final.
  D. The referee is empowered to decide upon any question, including those not specifically covered in the rule book.
  E. The referee has the authority to overrule the decisions of other officials on the court when the referee determines they have erred.
  9.3 - Responsibility
  A. The referee assures appropriate playing conditions by the proper inspection of the court, net and ball prior to play.
  B. The referee monitors and controls teams' warm-up.
  C. The referee executes the coin toss with the opposing teams.
  D. The referee penalizes misconduct and delays.
  E. The referee grants time-outs.
  F. The referee is responsible for keeping all official time frames in a game.
  G. The referee may make any call at his discretion, but has sole responsibility for faults of the server, faults in playing the ball and faults above the net.
  H. The referee must request the assistance of the tournament director when there is an unnatural interruption of play beyond the referee's control.
  9.4 - Procedures
  A. The referee will blow a whistle to indicate service at the beginning of each play, to indicate the termination of each rally and to indicate the authorization or rejection of a team request during an interruption of play or any other time judged necessary.
  B. The referee will use hand signals to indicate the initiation of service, any interruption in play (specifically indicating the nature of the violation), whether a point or sideout was awarded and for time-outs.
  C. The inspection of a ball mark to determine whether a ball was in or out will be done at the sole discretion of the referee.

  Rule 10 - The Umpire
  10.1 - Location
  The umpire shall take a position outside the court, opposite and facing the referee.
  10.2 - Authority
  A. The umpire has the authority to grant time-outs.
  B. The umpire may call faults, but is limited in his areas of authority.
  C. The umpire may assist the referee (without whistling) on calls outside his range of authority, but must not make the call himself.
  10.3 - Responsibility
  A. The umpire will call faults involving players in contact with the net.
  B. The umpire will call interference faults under the net.
  C. The umpire will call a fault if he determines a ball has traveled over or outside a support.
  D. The umpire may assist with line calls.
  E. The umpire may interrupt play if he sees a foreign object enter the court.
  F. The umpire will keep the official score sheet which comprises the game score and time-outs.
  G. The umpire will call to the attention of the referee any misconduct by players or spectator problems the referee may not be aware of.
  H. The umpire will supply opinions to the referee as requested.
  I. The umpire will perform other duties as deemed necessary by the referee.
  10.4 - Procedures
  A. The umpire will blow his whistle whenever initiating a call.
  B. The umpire will show proper hand signals immediately after making a call.
  C. The umpire will mirror the referee's hand signals after the referee has made a call.

  Rule 11 - The Linesmen
  11.1 - Location
  Two line judges will be placed diagonally opposite each other, one each at the left service area approximately 2 feet from the end corner. Linesmen will only move to avoid interference with players or contact with the ball.
  11.2 - Responsibility
  A. Linesmen will signal the ball in or out whenever the ball lands near the line.
  B. Linesmen will signal the "touches" by players of out balls.
  C. Linesmen will signal when a ball has passed over or outside the support.
  D. Linesmen will signal foot faults of the server.


Chapter 4 - Structure and Procedures of the Beach Volleyball Game

  Rule 12 - Structure
  12.1 - The Game
  A. A game is composed of a series of rallies, each of which is initiated by a serve.
  B. A team may not allow the ball to touch the playing surface within its playing court, may contact the ball no more thanthree times and must than send the ball over the net and into contact with either an opponent or his court.
  C. A team wins a rally when the opposing team commits a fault.
  D. A fault is any action which violates the rules.
  E. A team that serves and wins the rally is awarded a point and continues serving. A team that receives the serve and winsthe rally is awarded the serve without scoring a point (side-out).
  F. All matches are one game. A game is won when a team scores 15 points with a minimum advantage of two pointsor when a team is ahead by one point at the expiration of the time clock.
  G. Other than normal interruptions in play, the game will be continuous in nature.
  H. In the case where teams are tied at the expiration of the time clock, a sudden death overtime will be played to deter-mine the winner.
  12.2 - The Tournament
  Most tournaments utilize a double elimination format in which a team continues to compete until it has lost 2 matches. Teams with one loss compete against other teams with one loss in the loser's bracket. Eventually, the winner of the loser's bracket will play the winner of the winner's bracket in a game to 15 points.If the winner of the winner's bracket wins, they are the tournament champion. If the loser's bracket winner wins this game, a final game to 7 points, win by one, is played to determine the champion.
  12.3 - Game Clock
  Each game will be timed by a game clock. The clock will be allowed to run while the ball is in play only. The ball is considered to be in play when a player contacts the ball for service until the referee blows the whistle concluding a rally.

  Rule 13 - Beach Volleyball Procedures
  13.1 - Pre-Tournament
  A. Entries must be received for a tour event by 12:00 noon (Pacific Standard Time) the Wednesday prior to a tournament through the AVP office. Sign-ups may be made by phone, mail or in person.
  B. Entry fees must be paid and all registration forms must be completed by 8:45 a.m. the initial day of the tournament.
  13.2 - Pre-Game
  A. Previous to the start of a game, a member of one of the competing teams will call the coin toss conducted by the referee. The winner of the toss may have the choice of service or the side of the court preferred. The loser of the toss takes the alternative not chosen.
  B. A second coin toss will be conducted previous to the second game in a double final. The team not having called the toss in the first game will do so in the second.
  C. Teams are generally given a minimum of 15 minutes of simultaneous warm-up time previous to a game though other warm-up periods may be enforced when deemed appropriate.
  13.3 - 3Continuous Play
  A. Once a rally has been completed, the next server will be expected to proceed to the serving area. Such process need not be hurried, but is not to be delayed unnecessarily.
  B. The receiving team must play to the "reasonable" pace of the server. If the server is ready to serve, the receiving team is responsible to be ready as well.
  13.4 - Game Clock
  A. In no instance will time be put back on a game clock, including replays, unless there is a clock malfunction or it is determined that there is obvious operator error.
  B. A game will not be allowed to end on a rally that the referee determines is to be replayed. In such instances where the final play of the game is to be replayed, one subsequent rally will be played. No time will be put on the clock in such circumstances.
  13.5 - Overtime
  A. Immediately upon expiration of the game clock at which point the game is tied, a second coin toss will be con- ducted. The team not having called the original coin toss will do so for the overtime. The options are the same as in the pre-game coin toss.
  B. Each team has the discretion to determine the service order of their choice in overtime.
  C. Play will commence immediately upon completion of the coin toss.
  13.6 - Defaults
  A. If a team refuses to play or does not appear for play after having been summoned to do so, the opposing team will be awarded a point for every minute the team in viola- tion is late for the starting time of the game. In those games where no play is initiated due to default, the winning team will be given the maximum points possible, given the format in play (15 points in games to 15 points, 11 points in games to 11 points).
  B. If a game in progress is defaulted due to injury or disqualification, the defaulting team shall retain any points earned. The winning team will be given the maximum points possible given the format in play or sufficient points to reflect a one point margin, which ever is greater.

  Rule 14 - Interruptions and Delays
  14.1 - Time-Outs
  A. Each team may take a maximum of 2 regular time-outs of 1 minute duration each and 4 sand time-outs of 20 seconds duration each during a game.
  B. In a double final, each team will have 1 regular time-out of 1 minute and 2 sand time-outs of 20 seconds each.
  C. A team may not take more than two consecutive time-outs of any type with the exception of injury time-outs.
  D. With the possible exception of an injury/illness time-out, there are no time-outs or interruptions in play in an overtime game.
  14.2 - Delays to the Game
  Any act which, in the judgment of the referee, unreasonably delays the game shall result in a warning from the referee. If the act is repeated or the referee decides that the act is deliberate, the referee will assess penalties.
  A. A player may not cross intentionally onto the other team's court for any purpose other than to play a ball under the net.
  B. There will be no arbitrary inspection of the line for a "ball mark" by a player. Any such inspection will be at the sole discretion of the referee. Upon such inspection, each team will remain on their respective side of the court and well away from the mark in question.
  C. Players cannot arbitrarily call for the tournament director; this will be done solely at the discretion of the referee and only in those cases where a rule interpretation is in question.
  14.3 - Abnormal Interruption of Play
  A. The referee will stop play when a foreign object enters the court, including a ball from another court. In all such cases, the referee will direct a replay.
  B. If a player is injured or becomes sick during a rally, play will continue until the ball is dead. The official will then call an official's time-out to ascertain the nature of the injury or illness. The player will then have a maximum of three minutes to determine his ability to continue play. The player's three minute injury/illness time-out period may, however, be delayed to commence upon the arrival of the tour physical therapist. It is permissible for a player to warm-up or test the injury during this three minute period.
  1. Once the three minutes have expired, the player must commence play or call any time-outs (up to two consecutively) his team may have available. An injured or sick player whose team is to receive serve, has exceeded the three minute time frame, has no time-outs available and is not yet ready to play, will be penalized by having the opposing team awarded one point for each minute or partial minute consumed in excess of the allotted three minute time-out. If the injured/sick team was to serve, the initial one minute penalty will be loss of serve.
  2. A player may be awarded one injury/illness time-out for any particular injury or condition in a game to include "loss of conditioning". "Loss of conditioning" would include cramps, heat prostration and/or general exhaustion. A "different" injury/illness will allow the player another three minute time-out. Each match is to be considered separate with regard to injury/illness time-outs. A player, having received such a time-out in one match will be eligible for such time-out in a subsequent match for the same injury.
  C. The referee will stop play whenever there is an equipment failure which directly affects play.
  D. The referee will stop play if, in the referee's opinion, a fan or the crowd has interfered with play. In all cases involv- ing crowd disruption, players are to refer their complaints directly to the referee, the referee will use his sole discretion in determining the proper course of action. Play is to resume as soon as possible.
  E. The tournament director will suspend play when, in his opinion, inclement weather warrants. This decision is solely the tournament director's who will determine if and when play is to continue.
  14.4 - Changes of Court
  A. Teams change sides of the court in a 15 point game after every increment of 5 points.
  B. In a double final game to 7 points, teams change sides of the court after every increment of 2 points.
  C. Teams change sides of the court after every expiration of 30 seconds on the game clock in overtime.
  14.5 - Time Frames
  A. AVP games are customarily played with nine minutes initially put on the game clock.
  B. Double-finals are played with five minutes initially put on the game clock.
  C. Each side change in a 15 point game will be accompanied by a one minute break.
  D. Although players change sides every two points in a double final game to seven points, a one minute break is only taken after every increment of four points.
  E. There will be a three minute break between games in a double final.
  F. In an overtime period, teams will change sides of the court each time 30 seconds has expired on the game clock.
  G. There are no interruptions in play (break) taken during side changes in overtime.


Chapter 5 - Rules of Beach Volleyball Play

  Rule 15 - States of Beach Volleyball Play
  15.1 - Ball in Play/Out of Play
  The ball is considered in play or alive when it is legally contacted for service. The ball is out of play or dead the moment a whistled fault is committed.
  15.2 - "Continuation"
  If a violation occurs after the ball has contacted the ground, but during the normal course or continuation of the play, the fault will be called by the referee. (i.e. a player hits a ball which contacts the opposing team's court after which his forward momentum carries him into the net). The referee will determine when the play has ended.
  15.3 - Inadvertent Whistle
  If a whistle is blown inadvertently, play is dead immediately. In such situations, the referee must make a ruling that does not unduly penalize either team. If there is any question as to what the ultimate outcome of the play would have been, a replay must be called. If it is obvious the whistle could have had no bearing on the play's outcome, the referee must let the play's ultimate outcome stand.

  Rule 16 - Beach Volleyball Player Faults
  16.1 - Definition
  A fault is any action which violates the rules.
  16.2 - Results of a Fault
  A fault committed by the serving team will result in the loss of serve. A fault committed by the receiving team will result in a point awarded to the serving team.
  16.3 - Double Faults
  A double final fault occurs when players from opposing teams commit faults simultaneously. In such cases, the referee will direct a replay.
  16.4 - Successive Faults
  If two or more faults are committed successively, only the first is counted as all subsequent play is dead.

  Rule 17 - The Serve
  17.1 - Definition
  The serve is the act of putting the ball into play by a player who hits the ball with his hand (open or closed) or arm.
  17.2 - Position at Serve
  The ball may be served from any point behind the endlines and between the outside edge of the sidelines. The server may not step on, under, or touch the endline in any way, or touch the playing surface until the ball is contacted. He may not perceptively move the endline forward during service thereby reducing the size of the court. However, he may break the imaginary plane above the endline and/or sideline and contact the ball while his body is in the air provided the last contact with the ground was within the legal service area.
  17.3 - Permission to Serve
  The referee will blow the whistle prior to each serve which gives the server 5 seconds to initiate his serve. If the ball is served prior to the referee's whistle, the serve shall be canceled and a reserve directed.
  17.4 - Contact of the Ball at Service
  The ball shall be cleanly hit after the toss for service. (Exception: if after tossing the ball for a jump serve the server decides not to complete his service, a reserve will be directed. The attempt must be legitimate and the referee will not allow this interruption in play more than one time during any service attempt).
  17.5 - Service Order
  Teammates are to alternate the serve each time their team earns a side-out.
  17.6 - Duration of Service
  A player continues to serve until his team commits a fault.
  17.7 - Serving Out of Order
  The umpire is responsible for assuring each team complies with the proper service order. If the service order is violated, there is no penalty. An incorrect server, once he has initiated his serve (contact of the ball), will be allowed to complete the duration of his serve.
  17.8 - New Service Order
  If a player has served out of order, the opposing team will remain in their original order of service, but the offending team will reverse their original order of service to insure that no player will serve three consecutive times.
  17.9 - Position of Players at Service
  All players must be within the court at the time of the serve. The teammate of the server must be in a motionless position. He may not obstruct the view, intentionally or unintentionally, of the players receiving the serve. At the request of the referee he must move to grant them a clear view of the service.
  17.10 - Serving Faults (After Ball Contact)
  A. The ball contacts the net.
  B. The ball passes under the net.
  C. The ball passes over or outside the antennas.
  D. The ball touches a teammate or any other object before entering the opposing team's playing court.
  E. The ball lands out of bounds.

  Rule 18 - Playing the Ball
  18.1 - Maximum Team Contacts
  The ball may be contacted no more than three times by a team in an effort to return the ball over the net to the opponent's court.
  18.2 - Contacted Ball
  Any contact of the ball, whether intentional or unintentional, is considered a team contact.
  18.3 - Successive Contacts
  A player may not contact the ball twice successively with the exception of "driven balls" and contact while blocking.
  18.4 - Simultaneous Contact
  A. When teammates contact the ball simultaneously, this is considered one team contact and either player may make the next team contact.
  B. After simultaneous contact of the ball by opponents, the team on whose side the ball falls is entitled to play the ball three times.
  C. A ball striking a player and the ground simultaneously is a fault.
  18.5 - Playable Area
  A. The ball may be played anywhere on or off the court but a team may not pass the ball over the net or supports more than once during a team possession.
  B. It is permissible to cross the indefinite extension of the center line outside the playing area to play the ball.
  C. A player may not go over a court banner to play the ball when that banner is contiguous to two courts; merely touching the contiguous court in such circumstance will be considered a violation.
  D. When there is netting separating two courts, a player may not go beyond such netting or its indefinite extension to play the ball.
  18.6 - Ball Contact
  A. The ball may contact any part of the body.
  B. The ball may contact multiple parts of the body provided such contact is simultaneous.
  C. A ball must be hit cleanly and not held, lifted, pushed, carried or thrown.
  D. A "hard driven" ball from an attack or from a blocked ball rebounding back into the attacker's court may be contacted multiple times in succession by a player if these contacts occur during one attempt to play the ball. This counts as one team contact. A "hard driven" ball may never be carried or allowed to come to rest.
  18.7 - Setting
  A. The ball must be contacted simultaneously by both hands and not allowed to come to rest.
  B. A ball need not travel in the same direction the setter is facing; however, the setter cannot hold or carry the ball to change the direction of the set.
  C. When the ball is intentionally "set" into the opponent's court, the player's shoulders must be "squared up" or perpendicular to the line of flight.
  18.8 - Assistance to Contact Ball
  A player is not permitted assistance from his teammate, any object or equipment in his effort to play the ball.

  Rule 19 - Play at the Net
  19.1 - Ball Crossing the Net
  The ball must pass totally within the antennas or their indefinite vertical extensions.
  19.2 - Ball In or Contacting the Net
  A. A ball that is driven into the net may be played again within the limits of a team's three hits.
  B. A ball that contacts and passes over the net, within the antennas, is legal and in play. (exception service).
  19.3 - Player Contact of Net and Supports
  A. A player, thru his own impetus, may not contact the net with any part of his body or clothing.
  B. It is not a fault when the force of an opponent's contact of the ball hitting the net causes the net to contact a player.
  C. It is not a fault when a player's hat falls off his head and inadvertently contacts the net.
  D. It is not a fault when a player has incidental contact with the supports or support cables or referee stand.
  19.4 - Ball Under the Net
  A player may cross under the vertical plane of the net to play the ball.
  19.5 - Interference
  A. No player may interfere or threaten to interfere with an opponent's play. Simulated volleyball movements (fake attack on an over-set) are not construed as such threatening movements.
  B. In crossing under the net, a player may make inadvertent contact with an opponent, but may not compromise in any way the ability of the opponent to make a subsequent play.
  C. A player does not have to intentionally avoid a ball and/or opponent which has come on to his side of the court from under the net. Any such player may not, though, intentionally contact the ball or opponent if the opposing player has a possible play on the ball, or intentionally interfere in any way in that player's attempt at the ball.
  19.6 - Contact Over the Net
  During an attack a player may be in contact with the ball on the opponent's side of the net if the attack was initiated while the ball was partially:
A. On his side of the net.
B. Above the net.

  Rule 20 - The Block
  20.1 - Definition
  The block is the attempt by a player or players to interrupt the ball before, as, or just after it crosses the net.
  20.2 - Position of Blocker
  A player is determined to be blocking when he is positioned within an arm's distance of the net with his hand or hands above his shoulder.
  20.3 - Permissible Block
  A. A blocker may block any ball that has penetrated the vertical plane of the net.
  B. A blocker may block a ball on the opponent's side of the court when:
1. The attacking team has made its third contact.
2. Any time the attacking team has, in the referee's opinion, intentionally directed the ball into the opponent's court.
3. Any time the attacking team has made an unsuccessful attempt to attack the ball (i.e.a swing and a miss).
  20.4 - Blocking/Contact with the Ball
  A. A blocker or blockers may contact the ball multiple times as long as it is judged by the referee to be one attempt. This then, constitutes the team's first contact only.
  B. A blocker who has made the first team contact while blocking, can then make the second team contact.
  C. A blocked ball may be directed by the blocker, but may not come to rest or be carried by the blocker.
  D. Initial simultaneous ball contact by the attacker and blocker is permissible.
  E. Any sustained simultaneous contact of the ball by opposing players over the net is permissible.
  F. If a ball contacts the top of the net and a blocker and the ball returns to the attacker's court, the attacker's team shall have 3 more allowable contacts of the ball.
  G. When a ball is blocked back into the attacking player, the attacker is not subsequently considered a blocker and he may contact the ball only once (exception -"Hard Driven" Ball).


Chapter 6 - Misconduct and Sanctions

  Rule 21 - Misconduct
  21.1 - Definition
  Players who do not fulfill their responsibility to behave properly as detailed in Rule 5.2 are engaging in misconduct.
  21.2 - When and Where
  A player is responsible to refrain from misconduct from the time he arrives at the playing site until the time he has left such premises.

  Rule 22 - Sanctions
  22.1 - Definitions
  Warning, penalty, expulsion, disqualification and or fines imposed on a player for misconduct.
  A. Warning: A player will be given a warning (yellow card) by the referee for minor acts of misconduct on the court.A player may be given multiple yellow cards without the necessity of a red card, even for the same offense.
  B. Penalty: For distinctly unsportsmanlike behavior, or a second minor offense on the court, a penalty (red card) may be issued by the referee. A penalty automatically entails the loss of service if the service team is penalized. And if the receiving team is penalized, the opposing team is awarded a point.
  C. Expulsion: Extremely offensive behavior towards officials, opponents or spectators may result in expulsion from the game.
  D. Disqualification: Any attempted or actual physical aggression towards an official, opponent or spectator will result in the disqualification of the player from the remainder of the tournament.
  E. Fines: Players are subject to fines as imputed by the tournament director for their misconduct on and off the court while at the tournament site.
  22.2 - Misconduct Before the Game
  Misconduct directly before a game (warm-up) or between games in a double final will result in sanctions being imposed in the game following such misconduct.
  22.3 - Misconduct by Coach/Trainer
  A. The Player(s) a coach/trainer represents is responsible for the conduct of his coach/trainer.
  B. The Player(s) will be responsible for the payment of any fines which are suitably assessed by the tournament director due to the misconduct of his coach/trainer.
  C. If misconduct occurs during a game, the team will be warned/penalized in accordance with normal yellow and red card procedures.
  D. In circumstances that are flagrant or particularly injurious to the success of the tournament, the tournament director may order the coach/trainer to be removed from the site of the match or the precincts of the tournament site and upon his failure to comply with such order may declare an immediate default of the coach/trainer's team.

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